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TextMate Grammar Editing Tip – “Edit in TextMate”

April 12, 2011 Leave a comment

I wrote previously about creating language grammars in TextMate and I’ve been doing a bit more of this lately. One thing that makes this process a lot less painful is following the advice from the official Textmate book and installing the “Edit in TextMate” bundle.  Do this by going to Bundles->TextMate->Install “Edit in TextMate”, and follow the instructions.  After rebooting TextMate, you can press ⌃⌘E while within the Edit Grammar file to open a live copy of the document in a syntax highlighted textmate window.  Every time you hit Save, the changes are pushed back to the unstyled document pane.  This drastically speeds up development, as you no longer have to copy and paste text between the windows, but instead can hit save any time you want to try your changes out.

Live updating, syntax highlighted language grammar

Live updating, syntax highlighted language grammar

Pandoc – an essential tool for Markdown users

March 23, 2011 4 comments

Pandoc is a great tool to convert between various text based formats. For instance, with a single input Markdown file, I can generate an HTML page of that document, a LaTeX document, and a beautifully typeset PDF.

I had troubles installing it on Mac OSX via MacPorts; a simpler solution for me was to download and install the Haskell package and then use the commands:

cabal update
cabal install pandoc

This assumes, of course, that the cabal program that the Haskell package installs is accessible from your path.

The next step for me was to install the excellent Pandoc TextMate bundle. This gives you the standard things like syntax highlighting of your document, as well as a variety of useful snippets. For instance, when I am in Pandoc mode and press ⌃ ⌥ ⌘ P, I get the following popup from which I can easily choose options via mouse or keyboard:

Easy way to preview your document in various output formats

Easy way to preview your document in various output formats

Before you can start using the Pandoc TextMate bundle, you must ensure that the Pandoc executable is on the PATH exposed to TextMate, which is different than your global system path. In other words, just because you can execute pandoc in a shell and have it work, this doesn’t mean it will work in TextMate. For instance, on my computer, Pandoc is located in:

$ which pandoc
/Users/ndunn/Library/Haskell/bin/pandoc

Go to TextMate -> Preferences -> Advanced -> PATH and append :/Users/ndunn/Library/Haskell/bin to the end of the PATH variable.

Appending the Pandoc path to the PATH variable

Appending the Pandoc path to the PATH variable

Pandoc makes a few extensions to the Markdown syntax, which I really like. For instance, you can designate a section of text to be interpreted literally by surrounding it with three ~ characters. Furthermore, you can specify what language the source code is in, and the Pandoc converter will syntax highlight it in the final document (assuming the correct extensions have been installed).

I like this setup because it allows you to specify the language of the block of text, which means that you can force TextMate to interpret it the same way. As I’ve blogged about previously, one can add source code syntax highlighting embedded in HTML documents. I added the following lines to my HTML language grammar in order to have a few different languages recognized and interpreted as source code within these delimited blocks.

Here is the relevant section:

    {   name = 'source.java';
            comment = 'Use Java grammar';
            begin = '~~~\s*{.java}';
            end = '~~~';
            patterns = ( { include = 'source.java'; } );
        },
        {   name = 'text.xml';
            comment = 'Use XML grammar';
            begin = '~~~\s*{.xml}';
            end = '~~~';
            patterns = ( { include = 'text.xml'; } );
        },
        {   name = 'source.shell';
            comment = 'Use Shell grammar';
            begin = '~~~\s*{.shell}';
            end = '~~~';
            patterns = ( { include = 'source.shell'; } );
        },
        {   name = 'source';
            begin = '~~~';
            end = '~~~';
            patterns = ( { include = 'source'; } );
        },

(One tricky bit to get used to is that you need to have at least one blank space between surrounding text and a ~~~ delimited block, or else the ~ characters are interpreted as strikeouts through the text.)

Here is a screenshot of this working in TextMate:

Syntax highlighting of sourcecode within the Pandoc document

Syntax highlighting of sourcecode within the Pandoc document

Finally, just to get really meta on you here’s a screenshot of the text of this document

Text version of the document

Text version of the document

followed by a screenshot of the HTML that Pandoc produces: HTML version of the document

followed by a screenshot of the PDF that LaTeX formatted via Pandoc: PDF version of the document

I hope this has piqued your interest in Pandoc. I love the beautiful output of LaTeX but hate working with its syntax. With Pandoc I’m free to compose in Markdown, a language with a very lightweight syntax, and then convert into TeX when and if I want to.

TextMate – Introduction to Language Grammars: How to add source code syntax highlighting embedded in HTML

February 8, 2011 7 comments

I’ve blogged about TextMate a few times in the past, and with good reason – it’s an extremely versatile, light weight, powerful text editor for the Mac. One great feature of TextMate is its extreme customizability. Today I’m going to show how to modify one of the TextMate language files in order to add support for Java code within HTML text.

Why is this useful? My workflow for producing blog posts is often to write the post in TextMate using the Markdown markup language, which I then convert to HTML. WordPress has the ability to syntax highlight and provide a nice monospaced version of sourcecode within a post if it’s delimited by <code></code> tags. While the sourcecode comes out fine in the final post, it would be nice to have the syntax highlighting show up from within the Markdown view (i.e. while I am composing a blog post). Let’s get started by looking at how language grammars work in TextMate.

Introduction to Language Grammar Editing

The language support in TextMate is extremely powerful, but it’s a little complicated to get started. In essence, a language defines a series of rules mapping patterns to scopes. For instance, the Java language grammar defines a scope for comments, a scope for control characters, and so on and so forth. The scope is extremely important for many reasons. A few of them are

  • The scope determines whether text is spellchecked or not (a top level scope of source is not spell checked; one that is text will be)
  • It provides syntax highlighting, as certain scopes are associated with certain colors.
  • Snippets can be targeted to only run when within a certain scope. (See this article on Scope selectors for more.) For instance, all the Java snippets are defined as only being active in the source.java scope.

An example of a Java snippet that's only accessible when the cursor is within something identified as source.java

As an aside, you might wonder why the scope is called source.java as opposed to java.scope. The reason is that some scope selectors can target the more general case (scope), whereas those concerned with java can target the more specific scope (java.scope).

Since someone has already done the hard work of creating a language definition for Java and for creating all of the snippets that support it, we want to leverage this body of work. All we need to do is ensure that text between the java tags is considered to be part of the source.java scope, and everything will just work.

First, let us look at a sample grammar file. Open up the HTML language definition file by going to Bundles -> Bundle Editor -> Edit Languages, or via the shortcut ⌃ ⌥ ⌘L, and choose the HTML option. You’ll be presented with a rather inscrutable, unstyled document to the right. The first thing you should do, and which I found out the hard way, is copy all that text and paste it into a new document.

Edit Languages

Edit HTML language

When you paste the text into the document, the text is unstyled and interpreted as plain text. In order to force TextMate to interpret this as a language grammar, you must click the item in the lower middle that says “Plain Text” and choose “Language Grammar” from the dropdown box. The document should look a lot nicer after this step:

Plain Text
After changing to Language Grammar

Take a look through the grammar, but don’t get bogged down in the details. The important thing to look at is the list of patterns defined. Here’s just a small section:

    patterns = (
        {   name = 'meta.tag.any.html';
            begin = '(]*>)';
            end = '(>()';
            beginCaptures = {
                1 = { name = 'punctuation.definition.tag.html'; };
                2 = { name = 'entity.name.tag.html'; };
            };
            endCaptures = {
                1 = { name = 'punctuation.definition.tag.html'; };
                2 = { name = 'meta.scope.between-tag-pair.html'; };
                3 = { name = 'entity.name.tag.html'; };
                4 = { name = 'punctuation.definition.tag.html'; };
            };
            patterns = ( { include = '#tag-stuff'; } );
        }

This is the first pattern that will attempt to match. You don’t need to understand all of it, but you should understand that the parentheses in the regular expressions denote capturing groups, which are then referenced in the beginCaptures and endCaptures tags. These assign scopes to the various captured groups. Note too that we can recursively include patterns (via the include = '#tag-stuff' line) which assign scope to various parts of the matched text. This allows us to define a pattern one time and reference it in multiple places, which cuts down on code duplications.

If you look through the HTML grammar, you’ll notice that some embedded code is automatically detected and set to have the matching text use the corresponding language:

ruby = {
    patterns = (
        {   name = 'comment.block.erb';
            begin = '';
            captures = { 0 = { name = 'punctuation.definition.comment.erb'; }; };
        },

Here, any times the <%# %> tag pair is seen, the entire block is captured and assigned to the scope punctuation.definition.comment.erb, which has the effect of distinguishing it from surrounding text. You can see this in action in the following screenshot:

comment.block.erb scope

In addition to the fact that the ERB snippet is syntax highlighted, take note of the popup in the screenshot showing “text.html.basic” and “comment.block.erb”. At any point in any TextMate file, you can hit ⌃ ⇧P (Control Shift P) to get the current scope of the cursor. This is extremely useful for debugging why certain elements are not being selected or assigned the scope you think they are.

Adding Java support

While using a TextMate window to edit the grammar is extremely nice, unfortunately you cannot test your changes interactively here. You must copy and paste the contents back to the original grammar window, overwriting the contents, and then press Test. This will reload the grammar and you will see the change reflected in any window using that grammar currently.

With that in mind, let’s add the support for embedding Java within our Markdown blog posts.

The basic pattern is pretty simple:

    {   name = 'source.java';
        comment = 'Use Java grammar';
        begin = '\
';
        end = '\[/sourcecode\]';
        patterns = ( { include = 'source.java'; } );
    }</pre>
</div>
I look for the literal string <code>1</code> to start the pattern, and then the literal string <code>

to end it. I have to escape the brackets due to the fact that they have a special meaning within regular expressions ([aeiou] matches any vowel, while \[aeiou\] matches the literal string [aeiou]).

By adding this line to the top of the patterns, it is run before any of the others. (Remember, we have to actually add it to the HTML grammar within the Bundle Editor, not just the TextMate window with the grammar inside of it). Once the line is added and you press Test, the Java highlighting beings to work.

Here’s what a snippet of Java embedded in a Markdown blog post looked like without this change:

without language support

And after:

with the language support

Conclusion

Language support in TextMate is a very complex task, and one that cannot be adequately covered in a single post. I’ve shown here how to add a small snippet to the HTML grammar to allow syntax highlighting of sourcecode delimited by special blocks. This technique could be expanded to support any number of other programming languages.

The ability to customize TextMate through editing snippets and language grammars makes it extremely powerful. I hope this has only whetted your appetite to learn more. If it has, please see the macromates site which has more information about this.

How to make git use TextMate as the default commit editor

July 21, 2010 2 comments
git config --global core.editor "mate -w"

Now when you do a git commit without specifying a commit message, TextMate will pop-up and allow you to enter a commit message in it. When you save the file and close the window, the commit will go through as normal. (If you have another text editor you prefer instead, just change the “mate -w” line to the preferred one)

For those curious what the -w argument is about, it tells the shell to wait for the mate process to terminate (the file to be saved and closed). Read this for more information about how to associate TextMate with various other shell scripts and programs.

Categories: textmate, Uncategorized, unix Tags: , ,