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Posts Tagged ‘python’

Reblog: “Top 10 Mistakes that Python Programmers Make”

May 11, 2014 Leave a comment

Martin Chikilian from Toptal rounds up some common mistakes that Python programmers make.

I have made mistake #1 on multiple occasions:

Common Mistake #1: Misusing expressions as defaults for function arguments
Python allows you to specify that a function argument is optional by providing a default value for it. While this is a great feature of the language, it can lead to some confusion when the default value is mutable. For example, consider this Python function definition:

>>> def foo(bar=[]):        # bar is optional and defaults to [] if not specified
...    bar.append("baz")    # but this line could be problematic, as we'll see...
...    return bar

A common mistake is to think that the optional argument will be set to the specified default expression each time the function is called without supplying a value for the optional argument. In the above code, for example, one might expect that calling foo() repeatedly (i.e., without specifying a bar argument) would always return ‘baz’, since the assumption would be that each time foo() is called (without a bar argument specified) bar is set to [] (i.e., a new empty list).

I don’t remember for sure, but I’ve probably done something like #5, modifying a list while iterating through it.

If you write Python code, the rest of the article is worth a read

Categories: programming, Python Tags: ,

Music hack roundup

March 24, 2014 Leave a comment

Disclaimer: the opinions expressed are my own and do not represent that of my employer, Google

I love music. And programming. I really like pieces of technology that either create new or modify existing pieces of music. Here I detail some of my favorite projects I’ve found in the past few years.

Songsmith

Songsmith is a project from Microsoft Research. From the project description page:

Songsmith generates musical accompaniment to match a singer’s voice. Just choose a musical style, sing into your PC’s microphone, and Songsmith will create backing music for you. Then share your songs with your friends and family, post your songs online, or create your own music videos.

There was a commercial that detailed how the project worked, but what I found really great was what the community did with it. They fed the vocals of famous songs through the software to see what sort of music came out. The results are, ahem, mixed.

First, one that I think sounds pretty interesting – a swing version of Katy Perry’s I Kissed a Girl

Then going into the realm of hilarious:

We Will Rock You – Queen Vs Songsmith

Mortorhead’s Ace of Spades

Nirvana’s In Bloom

Enter Sandman

Roxanne

The Beatle’s A Day in the Life

The Swinger

According to musicmachinery.com’s writeup,

The Swinger is a bit of python code that takes any song and makes it swing.

If you’re not into music theory (or old music) you might not know what constitutes swing. The following video (only need to watch the first 30 seconds or so) is a great example of the difference of straight vs swing styles:

As you can hear, it sounds very different. The first half of each beat is stretched out, and the second half is shrunk down. It sounds even more different when you start listening to familiar songs converted from straight to swing, or vice versa. While most of the links have died, Daft Punk’s Around The World still plays, as does Jefferson Airplane’s White Rabbit.

The source code is available at https://github.com/echonest/remix/blob/master/examples/swinger/swinger.py.

Autocanonizer

From musicmachinery.com’s writeup of The Autocanonizer:

It takes any song and tries to make a canon out of it. A canon is a song that can be played against a copy of itself.

Wikipedia has a bit more information on what exactly a Canon is:

In music, a canon is a contrapuntal compositional technique that employs a melody with one or more imitations of the melody played after a given duration (e.g., quarter rest, one measure, etc.). The initial melody is called the leader (or dux), while the imitative melody, which is played in a different voice, is called the follower (or comes). The follower must imitate the leader, either as an exact replication of its rhythms and intervals or some transformation thereof (see “Types of canon”, below). Repeating canons in which all voices are musically identical are called rounds – “Row, Row, Row Your Boat” and “Frère Jacques” being widely known examples. An example of a classical strict canon is the Minuet of Haydn’s String Quartet in D Minor, Op. 76, No. 2 (White 1976, 66).

With that in mind, here are some example.

My favorite is Adele’s Someone Like You. This one sounds close to a round.

Screenshot from the Autocanonizer

Screenshot from the Autocanonizer

  • Over The Rainbow – starts rough but 30 seconds in it sounds good
  • The Fox – I like it. Lots of self harmonizing. The doubled up chorus actually works. It gets out of sync with itself at some points
  • Take Five – demonstrates that the technique works with odd meter too. Not perfectly lined up at some points

See all the examples available at http://static.echonest.com/autocanonizer/loader.html
Source code available at: https://github.com/plamere/autocanonizer

Hat tip to Greg Linden whose Google+ post alerted me to this, and reminded me of these other projects I’d seen before.

MajorVsMinor

MajorVsMinor is a slight departure from the others I’ve listed because there is a human in the loop – it’s not all algorithmic. From Oleg Berg’s description from olegberg.com

Hello! I am Oleg Berg, a musician from Donetsk, Ukraine. I digitally re-edit famous compositions altering harmonic scale, and I call this experimental music project «Major versus Minor». It may sound surprising and unusual, but it is always interesting. Listen to the music videos below. And please donate to keep the project going
[…]
I by no means intend to enhance the famous music hits as I rework them; they are perfect already. I simply imagine what would it sound like, had the author written it in another mood. And it appears, I succeed in my imaginations.

Again, if you’re not a music nerd you might not know what the difference between major key and minor is. In general picture minor = sad, major = happy. You’ll instantly hear the difference in these versions.

First, a must if you’re an Arrested Development fan.

“Final Countdown in Major key”

My favorite comment from MYxxLxxCHIBI1:

I was literally coming down here to say that myself. GOB finally got accepted to the Alliance of Magicians

Maybe my favorite one –
“Be Worry, Don’t Happy”: Minor Key

I like this one too.
Jingle Bells

“Hey Jude” in minor key

See the whole channel at https://www.youtube.com/user/MajorVsMinor

Since this isn’t a software project per se, there is no link to the source code. According to Asshat8182’s comment on Smells Like Teen Spirit in Major key (with a name like that, he must be a reliable source of information), the way it’s accomplished is

The ‘somehow’ is called Celemony Melodyne. Specifically the DNA function

According to Wikipedia:

Celemony Software GmbH is a German musical software company that specializes in digital audio pitch correction software. It produces Melodyne, an industry standard audio pitch modification tool similar to Auto-Tune

Conclusion

I hope you’ve found this short roundup of music hacks interesting. There are some very creative people out there. If you find what they’re doing interesting, please let them know and/or donate so they’ll keep making great stuff.

Python – “dict comprehension”

February 4, 2013 1 comment

I learned a new way to initialize dictionaries that I had never seen before, and I thought I’d share it with you. I previously blogged about three ways of creating dictionaries in Python. I showed that you can use an iterable of (key, value) tuples to initialize a dict:

professions_dict = dict(zip(names, professions))

Another way along these same lines is to perform the iteration within a list comprehension. Say that we have an iterable of Person objects, each of which has a name and profession. The professions_dict could be created as follows:

professions_dict = dict([(x.name, x.profession) for x in people])

What I didn’t realize is you can skip the tuples and call to dict, and use the comprehension within the dictionary literal itself:

professions_dict = {x.name: x.profession for x in people}

In my opinion this is much cleaner. The syntax and official documentation can be found in 5.2.5. Displays for sets and dictionaries.

Solving Scramble With Friends – a tale of three data structures

May 30, 2012 11 comments

Solving Scramble with Friends – A tale of three data structures

This post aims to illustrate how to solve Scramble With Friends/Boggle and the techniques and data structures necessary. In particular, we will see how to prune an enormous search space, how to use recursion to simplify the task, and the relative performance of three different data structures: an unsorted list, a sorted list with binary search, and a trie.

Problem statement

Given an N x N board, (4×4 in case of Boggle and Scramble with Friends), find all of the paths through the board which create a valid word. These paths must use each tile at most once and be contiguous; tile N must be adjacent to tile N – 1 in any of 8 directions (North, Northeast, East, Southeast, South, Southwest, West, Northwest).

Scramble Screenshot

In this example, ANT is a valid solution in the bottom left corner, but NURSE is not because the Ns are not located next to the U.

Naivest approach

First, imagine that we have a method that, given a path through the board returns all valid words that starts with that path, called DoSolve. For instance, DoSolve(['Qu']) would return all the valid words (and their locations) that start with Qu. DoSolve(['N', 'E']) would return all the valid paths that start with N followed by an E. With such a method, it is trivial to solve the problem. In pseudocode:

Solve(board):
    solutions = empty list
    for each location on board:
        append DoSolve(location) to solutions
    return solutions

The tricky part is, how do we make DoSolve work? Remember that it must

  1. return only valid words
  2. return only words that are formed from contiguous tiles
  3. must not repeat any tiles.

The easiest way to solve this problem is through recursion. As you probably remember, recursion is simply when a method calls itself. In order to avoid an infinite loop (and eventual stack overflow), there must be some sort of stopping criteria. As it was taught to me, you have to be sure that the problem becomes smaller at each step, until it becomes so small as to be trivially solved. Here’s that basic algorithm:

DoSolve(board, tiles_used)
    solutions = empty list

    current word = empty string
    for letter in tiles_used:
        append letter to current word

    # 1 - ensure that the word is valid
    if the current word is a valid word:
        append current word to solutions

    most recent tile = last tile in tiles_used

    # 2 - ensure that the next tile we use is adjacent to the last one
    for each tile adjacent to most recent tile:

        # 3 - ensure that we do not repeat any tiles
        if tile is on the board and tile hasn't been used previously:
            new_path = append tile to copy of tiles_used list
            solutions_starting_from_tile = DoSolve(board, new_path)
            append solutions_starting_from_tile to solutions

    return solutions

This will work, but it suffers from an incredible flaw. Do you see it?

The problem is that this method will waste an inordinate amount of time exhaustively searching the board for solutions even when the current path is completely useless. It will continue to search for words starting with QuR, QuRE, etc., etc., even though no words in the English language start with these letters. The algorithm is still correct, but it can be optimized very simply.

Pruning the search space

Those with some algorithms background might recognize the code above as a modified form of a depth first search. As described previously, a depth first search will exhaustively explore every possible path through the board. We can vastly improve the efficiency of this algorithm by quitting the search early when we know it won’t be fruitful. If we know all of the valid words, we can quit when we know that no word starts with the current string. Thus in the previous example, if the current word built up so far were “QuR”, the algorithm could determine that no words start with QuR and thus fail fast and early. This optimization will not affect the correctness of the algorithm because none of the potential paths we eliminate could possibly lead to a valid word; by constraint #1 this means that none of those paths would have ended up in the list of solutions in the first place.

How much does this save? On random 3×3 boards, The fastest implementation I have is sped up by a factor of 75. Solving 4×4 boards without pruning is infeasible.

Basic Python implementation

Assume as a black box we have two methods IsWord(string) and HasPrefix(string). The pseudocode above can be expressed with Python (forgive the slightly modified parameter list; I found it easier to write it this way):

def DoSolve(self, board, previous_locations, location, word_prefix):
"""Returns iterable of FoundWord objects.

Args:
  previous_locations: a list of already visited locations
  location: the current Location from where to start searching
  word_prefix: the current word built up so far, as a string
"""
solutions = []

new_word = word_prefix + board[location.row][location.col]
previous_locations.append(location)

if PREFIX_PRUNE and not self.HasPrefix(new_word):
  if DEBUG:
    print 'No words found starting with "%s"' %(new_word)
  return solutions

# This is a valid, complete words.
if self.IsWord(new_word):
  new_solution = FoundWord(new_word, previous_locations)
  if DEBUG:
    print 'Found new solution: %s' %(str(new_solution))
  solutions.append(new_solution)

# Recursively search all adjacent tiles
for new_loc in location.Adjacent():
  if board.IsValidLocation(new_loc) and new_loc not in previous_locations:
    # make a copy of the previous locations list so our current list
    # is not affected by this recursive call.
    defensive_copy = list(previous_locations)
    solutions.extend(self.DoSolve(board, defensive_copy, new_loc, new_word))
  else:
    if DEBUG:
      print 'Ignoring %s as it is invalid or already used.' %(str(new_loc))

return solutions

Data structures

The data structure and algorithms used to implement the IsWord and HasPrefix methods are incredibly important.

I will examine three implementations and discuss the performance characteristics of each:

  • Unsorted list
  • Sorted list with binary search
  • Trie

Unsorted list

An unsorted list is a terrible data structure to use for this task. Why? Because it leads to running time proportional to the number of elements in the word list.

class UnsortedListBoardSolver(BoardSolver):
  def __init__(self, valid_words):
    self.valid_words = valid_words

  def HasPrefix(self, prefix):
    for word in self.valid_words:
      if word.startswith(prefix):
        return True
    return False

  def IsWord(self, word):
    return word in self.valid_words

While this is easy to understand and reason about, it is extremely slow, especially for a large dictionary (I used approximately 200k words for testing).

Took 207.697 seconds to solve 1 boards; avg 207.697 with <__main__.UnsortedListBoardSolver object at 0x135f170>

(This time is with the pruning turned on).

Sorted list

Since we know the valid words ahead of time, we can take advantage of this fact and sort the list. With a sorted list, we can perform a binary search and cut our running time from O(n) to O(log n).

Writing a binary search from scratch is very error prone; in his classic work Programming Pearls, Jon Bently claims that fewer than 10% of programmers can implement it correctly. (See blog post for more).

Fortunately, there’s no reason whatsoever to write our own binary search algorithm. Python’s standard library already has an implementation in its bisect module. Following the example given in the module documentation, we get the following implementation:

class SortedListBoardSolver(BoardSolver):
  def __init__(self, valid_words):
    self.valid_words = sorted(valid_words)

  # http://docs.python.org/library/bisect.html#searching-sorted-lists
  def index(self, a, x):
    'Locate the leftmost value exactly equal to x'
    i = bisect.bisect_left(a, x)
    if i != len(a) and a[i] == x:
      return i
    raise ValueError

  def find_ge(self, a, x):
    'Find leftmost item greater than or equal to x'
    i = bisect.bisect_left(a, x)
    if i != len(a):
      return a[i]
    raise ValueError  

  def HasPrefix(self, prefix):
    try:
      word = self.find_ge(self.valid_words, prefix)
      return word.startswith(prefix)
    except ValueError:
      return False

  def IsWord(self, word):
    try:
      self.index(self.valid_words, word)
    except ValueError:
      return False
    return True

Running the same gauntlet of tests, we see that this data structure performs far better than the naive, unsorted list approach.

Took 0.094 seconds to solve 1 boards; avg 0.094 with <__main__.SortedListBoardSolver object at 0x135f1d0>
Took 0.361 seconds to solve 10 boards; avg 0.036 with <__main__.SortedListBoardSolver object at 0x135f1d0>
Took 2.622 seconds to solve 100 boards; avg 0.026 with <__main__.SortedListBoardSolver object at 0x135f1d0>
Took 25.065 seconds to solve 1000 boards; avg 0.025 with <__main__.SortedListBoardSolver object at 0x135f1d0>

Trie

The final data structure I want to illustrate is that of the trie. The Wikipedia article has a lot of great information about it.

Trie image

From Wikipedia:

In computer science, a trie, or prefix tree, is an ordered tree data structure that is used to store an associative array where the keys are usually strings. Unlike a binary search tree, no node in the tree stores the key associated with that node; instead, its position in the tree defines the key with which it is associated. All the descendants of a node have a common prefix of the string associated with that node, and the root is associated with the empty string. Values are normally not associated with every node, only with leaves and some inner nodes that correspond to keys of interest.

Snip:

Looking up a key of length m takes worst case O(m) time. A BST performs O(log(n)) comparisons of keys, where n is the number of elements in the tree, because lookups depend on the depth of the tree, which is logarithmic in the number of keys if the tree is balanced. Hence in the worst case, a BST takes O(m log n) time. Moreover, in the worst case log(n) will approach m. Also, the simple operations tries use during lookup, such as array indexing using a character, are fast on real machines

Again, I don’t want to reinvent what’s already been done before, so I will be using Jeethu Rao’s implementation of a trie in Python rather than rolling my own.

Here is a demonstration of its API via the interactive prompt:

>>> import trie
>>> t = trie.Trie()
>>> t.add('hell', 1)
>>> t.add('hello', 2)
>>> t.find_full_match('h')
>>> t.find_full_match('hell')
1
>>> t.find_full_match('hello')
2
>>> t.find_prefix_matches('hello')
[2]
>>> t.find_prefix_matches('hell')
[2, 1]

Unfortunately, there’s a bug in his code:

>>> t = trie.Trie()
>>> t.add('hello', 0)
>>> 'fail' in t
False
>>> 'hello' in t
True
# Should be false; 'h' starts a string but
# it is not contained in data structure
>>> 'h' in t
True

His __contains__ method is as follows:

def __contains__( self, s ) :
  if self.find_full_match(s,_SENTINEL) is _SENTINEL :
      return False
  return True

The find_full_match is where the problem lies.

def find_full_match( self, key, fallback=None ) :
  "'
  Returns the value associated with the key if found else, returns fallback
  "'
  r = self._find_prefix_match( key )
  if not r[1] and r[0]:
    return r[0][0]
  return fallback

_find_prefix_match returns a tuple of node that the search terminated on, remainder of the string left to be matched. For instance,

>>> t._find_prefix_match('f')
[[None, {'h': [None, {'e': [None, {'l': [None, {'l': [None, {'o': [0, {}]}]}]}]}]}], 'f']
>>> t.root
[None, {'h': [None, {'e': [None, {'l': [None, {'l': [None, {'o': [0, {}]}]}]}]}]}]

This makes sense, ‘f’ doesn’t start any words in the trie containing just the word ‘hello’, so the root is returned with the ‘f’ string that doesn’t match. find_full_match correctly handles this case, since r[1] = ‘f’, not r[1] = False, and the fallback is returned. That fallback is used by contains to signify that the given string is not in the trie.

The problem is when the string in question starts a valid string but is itself not contained in the trie. As we saw previously, ‘h’ is considered to be in the trie.

>>> r = t._find_prefix_match('h')
>>> r
[[None, {'e': [None, {'l': [None, {'l': [None, {'o': [0, {}]}]}]}]}], "]
>>> r[0]
[None, {'e': [None, {'l': [None, {'l': [None, {'o': [0, {}]}]}]}]}]
>>> r[1]
"
>>> bool(not r[1] and r[0])
True
>>> r[0][0]
# None

The issue is that his code does not check that there is a value stored in the given node. Since no such value has been stored, the code returns None, which is not equal to the SENTINEL_ value that his __contains__ method expects. We can either change findfullmatch to handle this case correctly, or change the __contains__ method to handle the None result as a failure. Let’s modify the find_full_match method to obey it’s implied contract (and be easier to understand):

def find_full_match( self, key, fallback=None ) :
  "'
  Returns the value associated with the key if found else, returns fallback
  "'
  curr_node, remainder = self._find_prefix_match(key)
  stored_value = curr_node[0]
  has_stored_value = stored_value is not None
  if not remainder and has_stored_value:
    return stored_value
  return fallback

Let’s make sure this works:

>>> reload(trie)
<module 'trie' from 'trie.py'>
>>> t = trie.Trie()
>>> t.add('hello', 2)
>>> 'f' in t
False
>>> 'hell' in t
False
>>> 'hello' in t
True

OK, with that minor patch, here’s a first pass implementation of the solution using the trie:

class TrieBoardSolver(BoardSolver):
  def __init__(self, valid_words):
    self.trie = trie.Trie()
    for index, word in enumerate(valid_words):
      # 0 evaluates to False which screws up trie lookups; ensure value is 'truthy'.
      self.trie.add(word, index+1)

  def HasPrefix(self, prefix):
    return len(self.trie.find_prefix_matches(prefix)) > 0

  def IsWord(self, word):
    return word in self.trie

Unfortunately, this is slow. How slow?

Took 2.626 seconds to solve 1 boards; avg 2.626 with <__main__.TrieBoardSolver object at 0x135f070>
Took 22.681 seconds to solve 10 boards; avg 2.268 with <__main__.TrieBoardSolver object at 0x135f070>

While this isn’t as bad as the unsorted list, it’s still orders of magnitudes slower than the binary search implementation.

Why is this slow? Well, it’s doing a whole lot of unnecessary work. For instance, if we want to determine if ‘h’ is a valid prefix, this implementation will first construct the list of all words that start with h, only to have all that work thrown away when we see that the list is not empty.

A much more efficient approach is to cheat a little and use the previously discussed method _find_prefix_match which returns the node in the tree that the search stopped at and how much of the search string was unmatched.

By using this method directly, we can avoid creating the lists of words which we then throw away. We modify the HasPrefix method to the following:

def HasPrefix(self, prefix):
  curr_node, remainder = self.trie._find_prefix_match(prefix)
  return not remainder

With this optmization, the trie performance becomes competitive with the binary search:

Took 0.027 seconds to solve 1 boards; avg 0.027 with <__main__.TrieBoardSolver object at 0x135f230>
Took 0.019 seconds to solve 1 boards; avg 0.019 with <__main__.SortedListBoardSolver object at 0x135f330>
Took 0.199 seconds to solve 10 boards; avg 0.020 with <__main__.TrieBoardSolver object at 0x135f230>
Took 0.198 seconds to solve 10 boards; avg 0.020 with <__main__.SortedListBoardSolver object at 0x135f330>
Took 2.531 seconds to solve 100 boards; avg 0.025 with <__main__.TrieBoardSolver object at 0x135f230>
Took 2.453 seconds to solve 100 boards; avg 0.025 with <__main__.SortedListBoardSolver object at 0x135f330>

It is still slower, but not nearly as bad as before.

Solving the board in the screenshot

With all this machinery in place, we can run the original board in the screenshot through the algorithms:

words = ReadDictionary(sys.argv[1])
print 'Read %d words' %(len(words))

trie_solver = TrieBoardSolver(words)
sorted_list_solver = SortedListBoardSolver(words)
b = Board(4, 4)
b.board = [
    ['l', 'qu', 'r', 'e'],
    ['s', 'l', 'u', 's'],
    ['a', 't', 'i', 'c'],
    ['n', 'r', 'e', 'n']
]
print 'Solving with binary search'
sorted_solutions = sorted_list_solver.Solve(b)
print 'Solving with trie'
trie_solutions = trie_solver.Solve(b)

# Results should be exactly the same
assert sorted_solutions == trie_solutions

for solution in sorted(sorted_solutions):
    print solution
words = sorted(set([s.word for s in sorted_solutions]))
print words

The results appear after the conclusion.

Conclusion

I have presented both pseudocode and Python implementations of an algorithm for solving the classic Boggle/Scramble With Friends game. In the process, we saw such concepts as recursion, depth first search, optimizing code through pruning unfruitful search branches, and the importance of using the right data structure. This post does not aim to be exhaustive; I hope I have piqued your interest for learning more about tries and other lesser known data structures.

For results, the patched trie implementation, and the driver program, see below. To run the driver program, pass it a path to a list of valid words, one per line. e.g.

python2.6 solver.py /usr/share/dict/words

For mobile users, the link can be found at https://gist.github.com/2833942

Hello {planet_name}: Creating strings with dynamic content in Python

May 17, 2012 1 comment

2012-05-16

The ability to create strings with dynamic content is very important in creating applications. Python makes this easy, but it’s not always clear what the correct approach is. Let us go through four ways of creating strings:

  • Implicit concatenation
  • Explicit concatenation
  • String formatting via % operator
  • String formatting via format method

Implicit concatenation

If whitespace alone separates adjacent string literals, they will be concatenated together.

>>> 'hello' 'world'
'helloworld'

This can be useful if you have a long string that you want to break up

>>> a_long_string = ('hello this is a very very very very'
...                  'long string')
>>> print a_long_string
hello this is a very very very verylong string

Implicit concatenation does not work for inserting variables into strings:

>>> name = 'Nick'
>>> 'hello' name
  File "<stdin>", line 1
    'hello' name

In that case, we need to be more explicit.

Explicit concatenation

You can also use the + operator to concatenate strings.

>>> 'hello' + 'world'
'helloworld'

Unlike in Java, types are not automatically coerced; it is an error to attempt to concatenate non-strings to a string:

>>> num_examples = 4
>>> 'I have ' + num_examples + ' examples to discuss.'
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<input>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: cannot concatenate 'str' and 'int' objects

You must explicitly convert non-string types into strings before using this operator.

>>> 'I have ' + str(num_examples) + ' examples to discuss.'
'I have 4 examples to discuss.'

String formatting via % operator

Creating longer strings by concatenating together different substrings works, but it’s not the most elegant solution. It is a common mistake to forget to put a space before or after whatever is inserted in the middle of two other strings, wasting time on the programmer’s part. It is also somewhat hard to scan while reading the source code; the + signs can distract from what the string is trying to say.

If you have used C before, you are probably familiar with printf and sprintf, which allow you to embed special characters within your strings which are subsituted with later arguments. For instance,

printf("hello %s\n", "world");

would produce “hello world”. Python has this feature built in to strings with the % operator. You can read more in depth about the [String Formatting Operations][] and its syntax, but at the very least you should memorize the flags %d (for integer types), %f (for floating point), and %s (for strings). For instance,

>>> 'I have %d things to talk about' %num_topics
'I have 4 things to talk about'

If you have more than one substitution to make, you must surround the substituted values in parentheses:

>>> 'I have %d things to talk about.  Number 1: %s' %(num_topics, 'Implicit concatenation')
'I have 4 things to talk about.  Number 1: Implicit concatenation'

This is a very powerful technique, especially when you learn the formatting flags that this operator supports. For instance,

>>> 'It is %.2f degrees out' %(98.63483)  # display 2 decimal places
'It is 98.63 degrees out'

This technique does not work as well when there are many substitutions to make:

query = """SELECT %s
FROM %s
WHERE %s
GORUP BY %s
ORDER BY %s""" %(columns, table, where_clause, order_by_clause, group_by_clause)

Did you catch the mistake? (Hint – check the order of args in parentheses) It’s easy to make a mistake like this in production. If you have more than 2 or 3 substitutions, I recommend the following technique – string format.

String formatting via format function

Strings have a format function which can also play the part of variable substiution. The benefit of this approach is that each substitution is named, and it is impossible to provide the arguments in the wrong order.

query = """SELECT {columns}
FROM {table}
WHERE {where_clause}
GORUP BY {group_by_clause}
ORDER BY {order_by_clause}""".format(columns = 'sum(num_users) AS actives',
                                    table = '1_day_actives',
                                    where_clause = 'country = "US"',
                                    order_by_clause = 'actives',
                                    # Note the wrong order - it doesn't matter, just as for
                                    # providing keyword arguments
                                    group_by_clause = 'actives')

If you prefer, you can use a dictionary to power the variable replacement.

data_dict = {
    'columns': 'sum(num_users) AS actives',
    'table': '1_day_actives',
    'where_clause': 'country = "US"',
    'order_by_clause': 'actives',
    'group_by_clause': 'actives'
}
query = """SELECT {columns}
FROM {table}
WHERE {where_clause}
GORUP BY {group_by_clause}
ORDER BY {order_by_clause}""".format(**data_dict)

Note the format method is only available in Python 2.6 and newer. As the documentation states,

This method of string formatting is the new standard in Python 3, and should be preferred to the % formatting described in String Formatting Operations in new code.

Hopefully I have shown that this is easier to read and less error prone than the alternatives.

Conclusion

It’s easy to get stuck in a rut and do things exactly the same way, even when alternatives exist. I only just recently learned about the string.format function, and find it preferable to all of the alternatives I have laid out. I hope you also find it useful.

Categories: programming, Python Tags: , ,

Three ways of creating dictionaries in Python

March 30, 2012 5 comments

Dictionaries are the fundamental data structure in Python, and a key tool in any Python programmer’s arsenal. They allow O(1) lookup speed, and have been heavily optimized for memory overhead and lookup speed efficiency.

Today I”m going to show you three ways of constructing a Python dictionary, as well as some additional tips and tricks.

Dictionary literals

Perhaps the most commonly used way of constructing a python dictionary is with curly bracket syntax:

d = {"age":25}

As dictionaries are mutable, you need not know all the entries in advance:

# Empty dict
d = {}
# Fill in the entries one by one
d["age"] = 25

From a list of tuples

You can also construct a dictionary from a list (or any iterable) of key, value pairs. For instance:

d = dict([("age", 25)])

This is perhaps most useful in the context of a list comprehension:

class Person(object):
    def __init__(self, name, profession):
        self.name = name
        self.profession = profession

people = [Person("Nick", "Programmer"), Person("Alice","Engineer")]
professions = dict([ (p.name, p.profession) for p in people ])
>>> print professions
{"Nick": "Programmer", "Alice": "Engineer"}

This is equivalent, though a bit shorter, to the following:

people = [Person("Nick", "Programmer"), Person("Alice","Engineer")]
professions = {}
for p in people:
    professions[p.name] = p.profession

This form of creating a dictionary is good for when you have a dynamic rather than static list of elements.

From two parallel lists

This method of constructing a dictionary is intimately related to the prior example. Say you have two lists of elements, perhaps pulled from a database table:

# Static lists for purpose of illustration
names = ["Nick", "Alice", "Kitty"]
professions = ["Programmer", "Engineer", "Art Therapist"]

If you wished to create a dictionary from name to profession, you could do the following:

professions_dict = {}
for i in range(len(names)):
    professions_dict[names[i]] = professions[i]

This is not ideal, however, as it involves an explicit iterator, and is starting to look like Java. The more Pythonic way to handle this case would be to use the zip method, which combines two iterables:

print zip(range(5), ["a","b","c","d","e"])
[(0, "a"), (1, "b"), (2, "c"), (3, "d"), (4, "e")]

names_and_professions = zip(names, professions)
print names_and_professions
[("Nick", "Programmer"), ("Alice", "Engineer"), ("Kitty", "Art Therapist")]

for name, profession in names_and_professions:
    professions_dict[name] = profession

As you can see, this is extremely similar to the previous section. You can dispense the iteration, and instead use the dict method:

professions_dict = dict(names_and_professions)
# You can dispence the extra variable and create an anonymous
# zipped list:
professions_dict = dict(zip(names, professions))

Further reading

zip

dict

Categories: Python Tags: , , ,